საინფორმაციო ბიულეტენი N 1 (იანვარი 2015 -მარტი 2015)

 

 

საინფორმაციო ბიულეტენში თავმოყრილია ჯანმრთელობის მსოფლიო ორგანიზაციის საინფორმაციო ცენტრის მიერ მოწოდებული პუბლიკაციების აბსტრაქტები და ხელმისაწავდომი ინტერნეტ-ბმულები.

შენიშვნა: ბიულეტენში პუბლიკაციები განახლდება 2-3 თვეში ერთხელ.

                                       

 

  01.01.2015 -20.03.2015

 

1.   Viewpoint

Leaving no one behind: an agenda for equity

Watkins, Kevin

[PAHO/WHO Equity list & Knowledge network]

The Lancet. Volume 384, Issue 9961, 20 December 2014–2 January 2015, Pages 2248–2255

Published online: May 2014

doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62421-6

The case for equity

Shortly before his death, Mahatma Gandhi offered a useful reflection that helps to cut through some of the complexity surrounding debates about equity. “Recall the

face of the poorest and the weakest person you may have seen and ask yourself if the step you contemplate is going to be any use to them.” It’s a simple but compelling guide for policy makers concerned with combating extreme inequality. Something of the same spirit underpins the report of the High Level Panel established by the UN Secretary General to make recommendations for the post-2015 development agenda. Going beyond the identification of universal goals, the report calls for “a focus on the poorest and most marginalised” and a commitment to “leave no one behind” (panel). This approach is in-keeping with other work on the post-2015 agenda, including the Global Sustainable Development Report.2 Far more than the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)—which were largely neutral on the issue of inequality—the High Level Panel report includes a wide-ranging social justice agenda. If  adopted by governments and backed by national policy commitments and a new global partnership, the Panel’s agenda could put exclusion, inequality, and marginalisation at the centre of the post-2015 development framework.

 

How to obtain this article:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673613624216

 

2.   Sex and gender matter in health research: addressing health inequities in health research reporting

Jacqueline Gahaganl, Kimberly Gray, Ardath Whynacht

International Journal for Equity in Health, 2015, 14:12

Indexed by BioMed Central

Published online: 31 Januray 2015

Astract

Attention to the concepts of `sex’ and `gender’ is increasingly being recognized as contributing to better science through an augmented understanding of how these factors impact on health inequities and related health outcomes. However, the ongoing lack of conceptual clarity in how sex and gender constructs are used in both the design and reporting of health research studies remains problematic. Conceptual clarity among members of the health research community is central to ensuring the appropriate use of these concepts in a manner that can advance our understanding of the sex- and gender-based health implications of our research findings. During the past twenty-five years much progress has been made in reducing both sex and gender disparities in clinical research and, to a significant albeit lesser extent, in basic science research. Why, then, does there remain a lack of uptake of sex- and gender-specific reporting of health research findings in many health research journals? This question, we argue, has significant health equity implications across all pillars of health research, from biomedical and clinical research, through to health systems and population health.

Keywords   Sex and Gender, Health Equity, Methodology, Knowledge Dissemination.

How to obtain this article  click here

 

3.   Health literacy toolkit for low- and middle-income countries: series of information sheets to empower communities and strengthen health systems

The World Health Organization – Regional Office for South-East Asia. New Delhi; 2015

Overview  

The promotion of good health, the prevention and management of communicable and noncommunicable diseases, and the reduction of health inequities. It provides information and links to further resources to assist organizations and governments to incorporate health literacy responses into practice, service delivery systems, and policy. This publication seeks to inform: governments, politicians and policy makers at all levels; academic institutions; public, civil society, and non-governmental organizations; and practitioners; relevant private sectors promoting health and well-being; communities, community-based organizations and social networks; WHO and other UN partners and development organizations.

Keywords: 

Health Literacy, Public Policy, Health Promotion, Social Determinants of Health, Health Information Systems.

Access this article :

http://apps.searo.who.int/PDS_DOCS/B5148.pdf?ua=1

 

4 .  Policy Brief: Quality of Care - What are effective policy options for governments in low- and middle-income countries to improve and regulate the quality of ambulatory care?

[PAHO/WHO Equity list & Knowledge network]

The World Health Organization - Regional Office for the Western Pacific

Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems and Policies

Published: February 2015

Purpose
Quality of Care (QoC) has been recognized as a key objective of health systems performance necessary to strengthen health systems in low- and middle-countries (LMICs). However, there is increasing evidence of very poor quality of ambulatory care in LMICs. The problem with QOC is that quality is difficult to define and measure. There are multiple perspectives on the definition of quality

— quality from the perspective of provider (effectiveness), the payer (efficiency), and the patient (responsiveness). At least six elements of quality have been identified by the Institute of Medicine in the United States.

Common aspects measured for quality are — inputs (facility, staff, equipment, and supplies), process (adherence to protocols and standards of care), and outcomes (relief of symptoms, extension of life, complications or poor outcomes). Measuring outcomes in terms of health status is costly and considered more complex due to the intervention of patient-specific factors. As a result, quality (especially effectiveness and safety) tends to be neglected, and focus of programmes and performance evaluation is typically on the more measurable aspects — utilization, efficiency, and responsiveness to patient expectations […]

The introduction of universal health coverage (UHC) reform in many LMICs of the Asia Pacific Region has directed attention to the problem of low quality care, and the need for strategies to improve and regulate QOC. The implementation of the number of discrete strategies to improve the provision of ambulatory is growing in these countries. However, the question is whether these strategies are working to improve quality, whether they can be implemented to scale, and how applicable they are in the context of mixed health-care provision and UHC reforms.

This Policy Brief examines the problem of QOC in ambulatory care services; reviews evidence on strategies to address QOC at the ambulatory care level, and provides guidance for policy-makers in LMICs in the Asia Pacific region on actions that governments can take to improve and regulate QOC in ambulatory care services.

Access this article :

http://www.open.ac.uk/socialsciences/prari/files/policy_brief_5_en.pdf

 

5. Promoting better integration of health information systems: best practices and challenges

English (PDF, 1.2 MB)

By Kai Michelsen, Helmut Brand, Peter Achterberg and John Wilkinson
Health Evidence Network synthesis report
2015, viii + 32 pages
ISBN 978 92 890 5077 7
CHF 20.00
In developing countries CHF 14.00
Order no. 13400152 

This report addresses the current trends in Member States of the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in how to promote better integration of health information systems. To understand what better integration means from a pragmatic perspective, experts from 13 EU Member States were interviewed and the results combined with the findings from a literature search.

This synthesis report identifies the following policy options for further consideration: the needs:

  1. to continue the work on some basics (such as data availability and quality, inventories of data and registries, standardization, legislation, physical infrastructure and workforce capacities) and on more “concept-driven” indicator sets; 
  2. to define what better integration means and to demonstrate concrete benefits of integration; 
  3. to build leadership for capacity building in further integration of health information systems; and 

to pursue further international exchange about activities underway in this area.

 

Access this article :

http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/abstracts/promoting-better-integration-of-health-information-systems-best-practices-and-challenges?utm_source=WHO%2FEurope+mailing+list&utm_campaign=92edd45061-Publication_News_March_20153_11_2015&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_60241f4736-92edd45061-94562105

 

6.  Residential heating with wood and coal: health impacts and policy options in Europe and North America

English (PDF, 2.9 MB)

2015, viii + 49 pages

ISBN 978 92 890 5076 0

Residential heating with wood and coal is an important source of ambient (outdoor) air pollution; it can also cause substantial indoor air pollution through either direct exposure or infiltration from outside. Evidence links emissions from wood and coal heating to serious health effects such as illness and death from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Burning wood and coal also emits carcinogenic compounds. 

The report describes the health effects of and policy options for dealing with residential heating with wood and coal in Europe and the United States. The results presented indicate that it will be difficult to tackle problems with outdoor air pollution in many parts of the world without addressing this source sector. National, regional and local administrations, politicians and the public at large need a better understanding of the role of wood biomass heating as a major source of harmful outdoor air pollutants (especially fine particles). This report is intended to help increase such an understanding.

Access this article :

http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/abstracts/residential-heating-with-wood-and-coal-health-impacts-and-policy-options-in-europe-and-north-america?utm_source=WHO%2FEurope+mailing+list&utm_campaign=92edd45061-Publication_News_March_20153_11_2015&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_60241f4736-92edd45061-94562105

 

7.   Building primary care in a changing Europe

English (PDF, 4.7 MB)

by Dionne S. Kringos, Wienke G.W. Boerma, Allen Hutchinson, Richard B. Saltman
2015, xxv + 1-172 pages
ISBN 978 92 890 5031 9
CHF 40.00
Order no. 13400150

For many citizens primary care is the first point of contact with their health care system, where most of their health needs are satisfied but also acting as the gate to the rest of the system. In that respect primary care plays a crucial role in how patients value health systems as responsive to their needs and expectations.

This volume analyses the way how primary care is organised and delivered across European countries, looking at governance, financing and workforce aspects and the breadth of the service profiles. It describes wide national variations in terms of accessibility, continuity and coordination. Relating these differences to health system outcomes the authors suggest some priority areas for reducing the gap between the ideal and current realities.

The study also reviews the growing evidence on the added value of strong primary care for the performance of the health system overall and explores how primary care is challenged by emerging financial constraints, changing health threats and morbidity, workforce developments and the growing possibilities of technology.

In a second, companion volume, that is available on-line, structured summaries of the state of primary care in 31 European countries are presented. These summaries explain the context of primary care in each country; governance and economic conditions; the development of the primary care workforce; how primary care services are delivered; and the quality and efficiency of the primary care system.

This book builds on the EU-funded project ‘Primary Health Care Activity Monitor for Europe’ (PHAMEU) that was led by the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL) and co-funded by the European Commission (Directorate General Health & Consumers).

Access this article :

http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/abstracts/building-primary-care-in-a-changing-europe?utm_source=WHO%2FEurope+mailing+list&utm_campaign=92edd45061-Publication_News_March_20153_11_2015&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_60241f4736-92edd45061-94562105

 

8.   Income inequality and health: A causal review

[PAHO/WHO Equity list & Knowledge network]

Kate E. Pickett, Richard G. Wilkinson

Social Science & Medicine, 128(2015), 316-326

Published: March 2015

Abstract

There is a very large literature examining income inequality in relation to health. Early reviews came to different interpretations of the evidence, though a large majority of studies reported that health tended to be worse in more unequal societies. More recent studies, not included in those reviews, provide substantial new evidence. Our purpose in this paper is to assess whether or not wider income differences play a causal role leading to worse health. We conducted a literature review within an epidemiological causal framework and inferred the likelihood of a causal relationship between income inequality and health (including violence) by considering the evidence as a whole. The body of evidence strongly suggests that income inequality affects population health and wellbeing. The major causal criteria of temporality, biological plausibility, consistency and lack of alternative explanations are well supported. Of the small minority of studies which find no association, most can be explained by income inequality being measured at an inappropriate scale, the inclusion of mediating variables as controls, the use of subjective rather than objective measures of health, or follow up periods which are too short. The evidence that large income differences have damaging health and social consequences is strong and in most countries inequality is increasing. Narrowing the gap will improve the health and wellbeing of populations.

Key Points: Evidence that income inequality is associated with worse health is reviewed. It meets established epidemiological and other scientific criteria for causality. The causal processes may extend to violence and other problems with social gradients. Reducing income inequality will improve population health and wellbeing.

Access this article : click here.

 

9. Closing the Gap: Past Performance of Health Insurance in Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Care Could Be an Indication of Future Results

Susan L. Hayes, Pamela Riley, David C. Radley, Douglas McCarthy

The Commonwealth Fund

Issue Brief, March 2015, pub. 1805, vol. 5.

Published online: March 2015

[PAHO/WHO Equity list & Knowledge network]

Abstract

This historical analysis shows that in the years just prior to the Affordable Care Act’s expansion of health insurance coverage, black and Hispanic working-age adults were far more likely than whites to be uninsured, to lack a usual care provider, and to go without needed care because of cost. Among insured adults across all racial and ethnic groups, however, rates of access to a usual pro­vider were much higher, and the proportion of adults going without needed care because of cost was much lower. Disparities between groups were narrower among the insured than the uninsured, even after adjusting for income, age, sex, and health status. With surveys pointing to a decline in uninsured rates among black and Hispanic adults in the past year, particularly in states extending Medicaid eli­gibility, the ACA’s coverage expansions have the potential to reduce, though not eliminate, racial and ethnic disparities in access to care.

Keywords Human Rights; Ethnicity; Health Insurance; Insurance Coverage; Healthcare Disparities

Access this article click here.

http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/files/publications/issue-brief/2015/mar/1805_hayes_closing_the_gap_reducing_access_disparities_ib_v2.pdf

 

10.  Strengthening Rights and Equity through Health Diplomacy: The role of UNASUR

PRARI – Poverty Reduction and Regional Integration = RePIR – Reducción de la Pobreza e Integración Regional

Published: January 2015

[PAHO/WHO Equity list & Knowledge network]

Overview

This brief closely looks at the role that regional entities (with emphasis on the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)) can play in advancing health equity for citizens living in member states. It looks at how UNASUR has been active in fostering health equity through health diplomacy not only within South America but also within international bodies. The experiences of UNASUR have been informed by a sharp sense of engagement of national stakeholders including activists and policy makers involved in working groups that operate across state lines. While it is true that specificities matter, there are definitely best practices that can be shared between regional entities and other actors in advancing health equity.

Keywords Equity in Health; Health Diplomacy 

How to obtain this article click here

http://www.open.ac.uk/socialsciences/prari/files/policy_brief_5_en.pdf

 

11.        Strengthening Rights and Equity through Health Diplomacy: The role of UNASUR

PRARI – Poverty Reduction and Regional Integration = RePIR – Reducción de la Pobreza e Integración Regional

Published: January 2015

[PAHO/WHO Equity list & Knowledge network]

Overview

This brief closely looks at the role that regional entities (with emphasis on the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)) can play in advancing health equity for citizens living in member states. It looks at how UNASUR has been active in fostering health equity through health diplomacy not only within South America but also within international bodies. The experiences of UNASUR have been informed by a sharp sense of engagement of national stakeholders including activists and policy makers involved in working groups that operate across state lines. While it is true that specificities matter, there are definitely best practices that can be shared between regional entities and other actors in advancing health equity.

Keywords Equity in Health; Health Diplomacy 

How to obtain this article click here

http://www.open.ac.uk/socialsciences/prari/files/policy_brief_5_en.pdf

 

12.    Strengthening the protection of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the African Region through human rights

Charles Ngwena, Ebenezer Durojaye
Pretoria University Law Press, 2014
ISBN: 978-1-920538-31-6

Published online [2015]

[PAHO/WHO Equity list & Knowledge network]

Overview

Strengthening the protection of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the African region through human rights uses rights-based frameworks to address some of the serious sexual and reproductive health challenges that the African region is currently facing. More importantly, the book provides insightful human rights approaches on how these challenges can be overcome. The book is the first of its kind. It is an important addition to the resources available to researchers, academics, policymakers, civil society organisations, human rights defenders, learners and other persons interested in the subject of sexual and reproductive health and rights as they apply to the African region. Human rights issues addressed by the book include: emergency obstetric care; HIV/AIDS; adolescent sexual health and rights; early marriage; and gender-based sexual violence. 

Keywords Human Rights; Sexual Reproductive Health; Gender; Violence Against Women; African Region

Download this publication: English

http://www.pulp.up.ac.za/pdf/2014_14/2014_14.pdf